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1936 Growing protests against anti-Semitism
© Beeldbank WO2 / NIOD

Cas Oorthuys - Mayor tries to forbid criticism of Nazi Germany

Jews are not allowed to take part in the 1936 Olympic Games in Nazi Germany. This also includes the fine art competition connected to the games.

Photographer Cas Oorthuys worked on an anti fascist exhibition D.O.O.D. (The Olympiad under dictatorship). Rejected artists and those who refuse to take part send their work in. Photographs and other pieces show what’s happening in Nazi Germany; censorship, book burning, persecution of Jews, racial delusion, forced sterilization, concentration camps and torture chambers.

The German Consul in Amsterdam is furious and the German Ambassador in The Hague is ready to step in. Mayor of Amsterdam Mr. De Vlugt uses a public order law to have 19 exhibits removed, mostly those about German migrants.

The German Consul finds the posters the most insulting, but the mayor sees no possibility of forbidding these but does prevent them being displayed on the municipal display pillars.


Source: Amsterdam by Cas Oorthuys, Flip Bool and Henk Raaff.

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Cas Oorthuys

Cas Oorthuys is a photojournalist. During the war he is a member of the resistance and in September 1944 he joins the Ondergedoken Camera (Hidden Camera); a group of Dutch photographers who document the occupation. After the liberation Oorthuys becomes the photographer of the reconstruction of the country.

More about this person

1938 Many Jewish refugees after Kristallnacht

Many Jewish refugees flee to the Netherlands after Kristallnacht. Princess Juliana also feels connected to the Jewish community. But while more attention is drawn to the admittance of more Jews, NSB members threaten more intervention.

1940 Amsterdam occupied

Nothing changes too much for the Frank family in the beginning. Opekta moves to the Prinsengracht. During air raids bombs cause death and injury in Amsterdam.

1940  Amsterdam occupied

1941 Jews allowed to do and less

It starts with a cinema ban but rapidly Jews are banned from virtually all public places. Jewish children must attend separate schools. This also applies to Anne and Margot Frank.

1941  Jews allowed to do and less

1942 It becomes more dangerous for Jews

On her thirteenth birthday Anne Frank receives a diary. A few days later she writes about the situation in Amsterdam. The introduction of the Jewish star and the raids. In July the Frank family goes into hiding.

1942  It becomes more dangerous for Jews

1943 Deportations and attacks

While the Frank family is in hiding thousands of Jews are deported from Amsterdam. The resistance tries to hinder the deportations by attacks including one on the Public Registry. It doesn’t stop them.

1943  Deportations and attacks

1944 Discovered and arrested

On 4 August the people in hiding in the secret annex are discovered and arrested. From Westerbork they are taken to Auschwitz. When the Allies land in the south of the Netherlands there is hope that the country will be liberated. German soldiers and NSB members flee the country after Dolle Dinsdag (‘Mad Tuesday’).

1944  Discovered and arrested

1945 Joy and sadness

A celebration at the Dam on 7 May is ruined when people are killed after German soldiers shoot at the crowd. On 8 May Amsterdam is officially liberated. Otto Frank returns. He knows that Edith is dead. He only hears later that his two daughters have not survived.

1945  Joy and sadness

1946 Slowly the threads are picked up again

On 3 May 1946 the first official commemoration for those who died during the war is held. Anne Frank’s diary is published on 25 June 1947. Life in Amsterdam slowly gets back to normal. Of the 70,000 Jews who lived in the city in 1940 only 10,000 have survived the war.

1950 Lasting memory

Even five years after the liberation the reverberations from the war are still clearly noticeable. The Jewish community thanks Amsterdam for the help given to Jews with a monument.

1950  Lasting memory
  • 1950
  • To those who protected the Dutch Jews during the years of the occupation. Protected by your love. Encouraged by your resistance. Mourning with you.

    Part of the citation on the monument ‘Jewish Gratitude’
  • picture:Once a year, two minutes silence

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