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1942 It becomes more dangerous for Jews
Merwedeplein 37
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© Jon Blair / Anne Frank Stichting

Anne 'to Switzerland'

Hanneli Goslar lives nearby Anne on the Zuider Amstellaan, now called the Rooseveltlaan. She’s a good friend and their parents are friends too. In this film she’s standing in front of Anne’s home and talks about when she hears from a neighbour that Anne has left. ‘Fled abroad,’ he says.

The story about fleeing abroad has been made up, but Hanneli believes it. Friends and family of the Franks believe it too. In reality, on 6 July 1942 the Franks went into hiding in the secret annex on the Prinsengracht.

Anne is sad about Hanneli

When they're in hiding Anne often thinks about her friend. She writes in her diary:
‘I was very sad again last night. (...) And Hanneli? Is she still alive? What’s she doing? Dear God, watch over her and bring her back to us. Hanneli, you’re a reminder of what my fate might have been. I keep seeing myself in your place.’

Meeting in Bergen-Belsen

In 1945 Hanneli talks to Anne Frank again in camp Bergen-Belsen. They can’t see each other because there is a high fence between them. She is surprised to hear that Anne was in hiding for two years in her father’s office and that the story about fleeing was made up to confuse the Nazis.

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The deportations

When the gas chambers in Auschwitz are ready for use in 1942, Jews from all over Europe are sent to this concentration and extermination camp. The Nazis organize this under the guise of ‘emigration’ and ‘employment’ in Eastern Europe. In July they start to assemble Jews in Amsterdam. First they are taken by train to Westerbork in Drenthe then they are sent in crowded cattle and goods cars to concentration camps. More than 100,000 Jews from Amsterdam meet their deaths in this way.

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1938 Many Jewish refugees after Kristallnacht

Many Jewish refugees flee to the Netherlands after Kristallnacht. Princess Juliana also feels connected to the Jewish community. But while more attention is drawn to the admittance of more Jews, NSB members threaten more intervention.

1940 Amsterdam occupied

Nothing changes too much for the Frank family in the beginning. Opekta moves to the Prinsengracht. During air raids bombs cause death and injury in Amsterdam.

1940  Amsterdam occupied

1941 Jews allowed to do and less

It starts with a cinema ban but rapidly Jews are banned from virtually all public places. Jewish children must attend separate schools. This also applies to Anne and Margot Frank.

1941  Jews allowed to do and less

1942 It becomes more dangerous for Jews

On her thirteenth birthday Anne Frank receives a diary. A few days later she writes about the situation in Amsterdam. The introduction of the Jewish star and the raids. In July the Frank family goes into hiding.

1942  It becomes more dangerous for Jews

1943 Deportations and attacks

While the Frank family is in hiding thousands of Jews are deported from Amsterdam. The resistance tries to hinder the deportations by attacks including one on the Public Registry. It doesn’t stop them.

1943  Deportations and attacks

1944 Discovered and arrested

On 4 August the people in hiding in the secret annex are discovered and arrested. From Westerbork they are taken to Auschwitz. When the Allies land in the south of the Netherlands there is hope that the country will be liberated. German soldiers and NSB members flee the country after Dolle Dinsdag (‘Mad Tuesday’).

1944  Discovered and arrested

1945 Joy and sadness

A celebration at the Dam on 7 May is ruined when people are killed after German soldiers shoot at the crowd. On 8 May Amsterdam is officially liberated. Otto Frank returns. He knows that Edith is dead. He only hears later that his two daughters have not survived.

1945  Joy and sadness

1946 Slowly the threads are picked up again

On 3 May 1946 the first official commemoration for those who died during the war is held. Anne Frank’s diary is published on 25 June 1947. Life in Amsterdam slowly gets back to normal. Of the 70,000 Jews who lived in the city in 1940 only 10,000 have survived the war.

1950 Lasting memory

Even five years after the liberation the reverberations from the war are still clearly noticeable. The Jewish community thanks Amsterdam for the help given to Jews with a monument.

1950  Lasting memory
  • 1950
  • To those who protected the Dutch Jews during the years of the occupation. Protected by your love. Encouraged by your resistance. Mourning with you.

    Part of the citation on the monument ‘Jewish Gratitude’
  • picture:Once a year, two minutes silence

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Bird’s eye view of Anne Frank’s Amsterdam

View the most important places with their story from Anne Frank’s Amsterdam. Click to the Timeline and see how Amsterdam changed from being a safe haven in 1933 to an occupied city. Zoom in by clicking on the plus sign on the left. This way you can click more easily on the places on the map