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1942 It becomes more dangerous for Jews
Plantage Middenlaan 24
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Saved from the Schouwburg

This is the only known photo of Jews arriving at the Hollandsche Schouwburg.

From the end of July 1942 the Hollandsche Schouwburg is the assembly place for Jews being deported to transit camp Westerbork. People either report there voluntarily or are taken there after being arrested or as the result of a raid. After a few months, the Schouwburg becomes so full with arrested Jews, that all children up to the age of thirteen are held in the Jewish crèche on the other side of the road.


Walter Süskind, a German Jew who gets on well with the German guards, is in charge of the Hollandsche Schouwburg. This way he’s able to help people escape. He’s also able, with help, to get many children out of the crèche and into hiding.

Children are saved

By fiddling the registration of the children they do not appear to be missing in the administration. The children are smuggled out of the crèche by their carers and handed over to people who take them to locations all over the Netherlands where they can be hidden. About a thousand children are saved in this way.

Anne Frank

Anne Frank and the other people in hiding were never in the Hollandsche Schouwburg. When they are arrested on 4 August, 1944 the building is no longer being used as an assembly point. Today the building is a monument and a memorial to Jewish victims.

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Weesperbuurt and Plantage neighbourhood

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1938 Many Jewish refugees after Kristallnacht

Many Jewish refugees flee to the Netherlands after Kristallnacht. Princess Juliana also feels connected to the Jewish community. But while more attention is drawn to the admittance of more Jews, NSB members threaten more intervention.

1940 Amsterdam occupied

Nothing changes too much for the Frank family in the beginning. Opekta moves to the Prinsengracht. During air raids bombs cause death and injury in Amsterdam.

1940  Amsterdam occupied

1941 Jews allowed to do and less

It starts with a cinema ban but rapidly Jews are banned from virtually all public places. Jewish children must attend separate schools. This also applies to Anne and Margot Frank.

1941  Jews allowed to do and less

1942 It becomes more dangerous for Jews

On her thirteenth birthday Anne Frank receives a diary. A few days later she writes about the situation in Amsterdam. The introduction of the Jewish star and the raids. In July the Frank family goes into hiding.

1942  It becomes more dangerous for Jews

1943 Deportations and attacks

While the Frank family is in hiding thousands of Jews are deported from Amsterdam. The resistance tries to hinder the deportations by attacks including one on the Public Registry. It doesn’t stop them.

1943  Deportations and attacks

1944 Discovered and arrested

On 4 August the people in hiding in the secret annex are discovered and arrested. From Westerbork they are taken to Auschwitz. When the Allies land in the south of the Netherlands there is hope that the country will be liberated. German soldiers and NSB members flee the country after Dolle Dinsdag (‘Mad Tuesday’).

1944  Discovered and arrested

1945 Joy and sadness

A celebration at the Dam on 7 May is ruined when people are killed after German soldiers shoot at the crowd. On 8 May Amsterdam is officially liberated. Otto Frank returns. He knows that Edith is dead. He only hears later that his two daughters have not survived.

1945  Joy and sadness

1946 Slowly the threads are picked up again

On 3 May 1946 the first official commemoration for those who died during the war is held. Anne Frank’s diary is published on 25 June 1947. Life in Amsterdam slowly gets back to normal. Of the 70,000 Jews who lived in the city in 1940 only 10,000 have survived the war.

1950 Lasting memory

Even five years after the liberation the reverberations from the war are still clearly noticeable. The Jewish community thanks Amsterdam for the help given to Jews with a monument.

1950  Lasting memory
  • 1950
  • To those who protected the Dutch Jews during the years of the occupation. Protected by your love. Encouraged by your resistance. Mourning with you.

    Part of the citation on the monument ‘Jewish Gratitude’
  • picture:Once a year, two minutes silence

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Bird’s eye view of Anne Frank’s Amsterdam

View the most important places with their story from Anne Frank’s Amsterdam. Click to the Timeline and see how Amsterdam changed from being a safe haven in 1933 to an occupied city. Zoom in by clicking on the plus sign on the left. This way you can click more easily on the places on the map